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Want to make your meter run backwards? We focus on grid-tie residential system using

Micro-Inverters. Find out more by calling (330) 830-0074.

There are many different varieties of solar energy system including grid-tie, grid-tie battery

back-up, stand-alone, and industrial systems. Differences in inverters, the units that change DC energy into AC energy also greatly affect system design. 

How Does Solar Work?

Solar Panel Diagram

Despite what most companies say, the solar learning process starts with the mounting, not the solar panels. You have to know where you are going to place your solar panels before you can plan your system. Most homeowners place their solar panels on their roof. However if your roof is heavily shaded by trees your installer may recommend mounting your solar panels on a pole next to the home.

Solar Panels
The silicone in solar panels releases electrons, positive and negative, when exposed to sunlight. These electrons, or energy, flow like water through the cables (one negative, one positive) coming out of the back of the solar panel towards the inverter. Koby Electric uses 220-230 watt solar panels. These panels are approximately 3 and 1/2 feet by 5 1/2 feet, and take up roughly 18 sqft on your roof. 

Inverters change DC energy, like what is in your car battery, into AC energy that your appliances can use. Koby Electric uses micro-inverters--one per panel- that connect together in a chain. These micro-inverters maximize the efficiency of each solar panel. While central inverters can convert significantly less power when a single solar panel is shaded, micro-inverters are not affected each other's performance. This means you can place solar panels in areas of partial shading without greatly affecting the performance of the entire system.

Junction Box, and Safety Disconnect
The cable from the final micro-inverter in the chain connects to a junction box, where the AC wiring connects and runs down conduit to a safety disconnect

The monitoring used by Koby Electric tracks the energy production by each panel, reporting how much energy is being produced right now, today, this month and over the lifetime of the system. The monitoring also reports if there is any problems with your inverters, reporting it directly to the installer, and alerting the manufacturer so a replacement unit can be sent.

How Does Solar Work

Samantha Jones, Project Manager

Koby Electric

What is solar energy?
Solar energy takes advantage of the sun's rays to generate heat or electricity. It is an infinitely renewable resource and unique for its ability to generate energy in a quiet, clean, and consistent manner.

How do solar photovoltaic cells work?
The solar cells we use are made with silicon, which comes from sand. It is a semiconductor like a microchip in your computer. Phosphorous and boron are added to the silicon which encourages electrons to move when the silicon is struck by rays of UV light. Positive and negative electrons move across the cell to electrical circuits that eventually lead to positive and negative cables coming out of the back of the panel.

What is the difference between solar panels versus building integrated photovoltaic products?
Solar panels are flat panels of glass and silicon with a metal frame that are mounted on a roof or a pole. Building integrated photovoltaic materials into the building material itself, primarily windows, roof tiles, or walls. Solar panels are generally 1/3 to half the cost of building integrated materials.

How much does a solar electric power system cost?
A 10 panels system, or 2.3kW, 2,300 watt system, will cost approximately $18,000 to $19,500 depending on your home. That total includes the cost for all components – solar panels, panel mounts, and inverter – and labor associated with installation. This price is before all federal, state, and utility incentives.

How much will I really save on my utility bills from a home electric solar power system?
This is a relative question. It depends, in part, on how much electricity you use and how efficient the appliances are that you operate. However, most systems excess electricity in the summer (when days are long) which can potentially offset the energy you use from the grid in the winter.

What's the difference between solar photovoltaic and solar hot water systems?
While both types of solar systems capture energy from the sun, solar photovoltaic systems use photovoltaic panels to produce electricity. Solar hot water, or thermal, systems capture sunlight to heat water for domestic use, to heat a swimming pool, or for a radiant heating system.

How much maintenance do solar energy panels require?
Solar electric panels require little maintenance – no need to wash or dust. It is, however, important to place panels where they will remain clear of shade and debris. Thus you will have to wipe them off if too much snow or leaves fall on them.


Can I use a financing system?
Many homeowners have used a home equity loan for the purchase and installation costs of a solar electric system. There are also PACE programs in many markets or Property Assessed Clean Energy programs which allow you to finance your solar electric system on your tax bill. YOu may need to contact your local county or township about such a program.

Do I need special insurance requirements?
Standard homeowner's insurance policies usually suffice to meet electric utility requirements. Electric utilities usually require that homeowners who take advantage of net metering sign an interconnection agreement.

Will I need a building permit to install a solar energy system in my home?
Yes. You'll need to obtain building permits to install a solar electric system. Similarly, building, electrical also apply. That said, residential solar power systems do not use "radical" building techniques and most jurisdictions have building codes that fully embrace solar energy technology. We include the price for permits into our cost estimate.

When should I seek a solar professional?
Although solar energy systems work in parallel with conventional residential electrical and plumbing systems, there are quirks in the process well suited to seeking out professionals who specialize in solar power installation. Solar installation professionals can help you determine the type and size of system most suited for your needs.

How can I calculate the cost and payback time from a solar power installation?
You can estimate how much a solar electric system may cost if you determine your current energy needs and costs and compare against your future anticipated use. Once you have a sense of how much energy you use, you can evaluate the cost of purchasing and installing one or both of the technologies.

How long will it take to install a solar power system in my home?
Planning, configuring, and doing any custom ordering for your solar energy system can take up to a few weeks. However, the installation process itself can typically be completed in only a few days time, in many cases even less.

What components do I need to install a grid-tied solar electric system?
You will need a photovoltaic array to capture the sun's energy, an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) produced from the photovoltaic cells into alternating current (AC) used by your home, and a house utility meter – called a net meter – that can record both the electricity produced from your home's power system as well as any power you may use off the grid. These three system components are then connected through a series of wiring. The photovoltaic panels are secured to your roof with panel mounts or are installed on poles that can be adjusted for sun angle.

What is a net meter?
Net meters look very much like other outdoor meters with one notable exception – they spin both forwards and backwards recording both the power produced and power used.

Do I need battery backup for my solar panels?
Probably not – a backup battery bank can add as much as 25% in cost to a residential solar PV system. It's not necessarily more efficient either – a same sized solar array will yield about 7–10% less energy if it's battery-tied than its grid-tied counterpart.
Though you will remain tethered to your local utilities' grid, you will not have to worry about not generating enough power. You also gain the advantage of offsetting rising utility costs. Most solar photovoltaic experts do not recommend adding a backup battery system unless there is concern about a long utility outage or the residence is in a remote location.

How much space do I need for a solar photovoltaic system?
Our systems use 18 square feet per panel. So a 10 panel, 2,300 watt system uses 180 sqft.

How many solar panels do I need for an electric solar power system?
This is determined by three factors; your budget, your available roof space, and your electrical useage. An average residential system is 20 panels, or 4,600 watts.

How much shading is too much for solar photovoltaic panels?
Shading can be calculated and accounted for in small amounts. Our system uses a special inverter that means if one panel is shaded, all the other panels are not affected. While shading is best to be avoided, it can be accounted for, and included in your electrical production and investment analysis.

How do I know if solar panels will work on my home?
Take a look at the position of your home on its lot – and particularly your roof. Ask the following questions:
Is there good southern exposure? Orienting solar panels to the south maximizes the effectiveness of energy collection.
Is the exposure free of trees or buildings that could shade the panels or drop debris on them? Shading photovoltaic panels dramatically reduces their effectiveness. What is the pitch of your roof? Most roofs, from flat to 60-degrees can accommodate photovoltaic panels.


Do I need to have south facing exposure to have a solar energy system?
Although southern exposure increases the effectiveness of a residential solar power system, your home may still work for solar power without having south facing exposure.

What other factors are important to consider when installing a home solar energy system?
The location of your home and the local climate will play into where you place and how you install your solar electric or solar hot water system. Wind speeds, heavy snow loads, and salt water can all affect a solar array. Understanding how those inputs effect performance will determine the types of mounts or how the arrays are angled. A solar pro in your area is likely quite knowledgeable about your local conditions and can help you design that works well for you.



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